"King, or king regnant, is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, while the title of queen on its own usually refers to the consort of a king.

In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contemporary indigenous peoples, the title may refer to tribal kingship. Germanic kingship is cognate with Indo-European traditions of tribal rulership (c.f. Indic rājan, Gothic reiks, and Old Irish rí, etc.).In the context of classical antiquity, king may translate in Latin as rex and in Greek as archon or basileus.In classical European feudalism, the title of king as the ruler of a kingdom is understood to be the highest rank in the feudal order, potentially subject, at least nominally, only to an emperor (harking back to the client kings of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire).In a modern context, the title may refer to the ruler of one of a number of modern monarchies (either absolute or constitutional). The title of king is used alongside other titles for monarchs: in the West, emperor, grand prince, prince, archduke, duke or grand duke, and in the Middle East, malik, sultan, emir or hakim, etc.The term king may also refer to a king consort, a title that is sometimes given to the husband of a ruling queen, but the title of prince consort is sometimes granted instead." - ( 27.10.2019)

What we know

office held

office held Ptolemaios I. Soter (367-283 v.Chr.) Egypt 305-283 BC
office held Ptolemaios II. Philadelphos (-0308--0246) Egypt
office held Frederick II of Prussia (1712-1786) Prussia 1740-1786
office held Frederick William I of Prussia (1688-1740) Prussia 1713-1740
office held Frederick I of Prussia (1657-1713) Prussia 1701-1713
office held Frederick I (1122-1190) Holy Roman Empire 1152-1153
office held Enzio of Sardinia (1220-1272) Sardinia
office held Manfred, King of Sicily (1232-1266) Sicily
office held Heinrich VII. (HRR) (1211-1242) Holy Roman Empire
office held Conradin (1252-1268) Sicily
office held Conradin (1252-1268) Jerusalem
office held Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1165-1197) Italy
office held Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1165-1197) Holy Roman Empire 1169-1191
office held Henry IV (1050-1106) Holy Roman Empire
office held Lothair of France (941-986)
office held Charlemagne (747-814)
office held Pippin I. von Aquitanien (797-838) Aquitaine
office held Louis the German (806-876)
office held Arnulf of Carinthia (850-899)
office held Pepin the Short (714-768)
office held Charibert II (614-632) Aquitaine
office held Sigibert III. (-656)
office held Chlodwig II. (634-657)
office held Chlothar I (495-561)
office held Frederick I of Sweden (1676-1751) Sweden
office held Conrad I of Germany (881-918)
office held Theoderich der Große (451-526)
office held Athalarich (516-534) 526-534 CE
office held Chlodwig I. (466-511)
office held Childerich I. (-481)
office held Kunimund (-567)
office held Ardashir I. (-242 v. Chr.) Sasanian Empire 224-240 CE
office held Shapur I. (-270) Sasanian Empire 240-270 CE
office held Bahram II. (-293) Sasanian Empire 274-291 CE
office held Bahram I. (-276) Sasanian Empire 271-274 CE
office held Hormizd I. (-273) Sasanian Empire 272-273 CE
office held Narseh (-302) Sasanian Empire 293-302 CE
office held Schapur II. (309-379) Sasanian Empire 309-379 CE
office held Ardashir II. (-383) Sasanian Empire 379-383 CE
office held Bahram IV. (-399) Sasanian Empire 388-399 CE
office held Yazdegerd II. (-457) Sasanian Empire 439-457 CE
office held Yazdegerd I. Sasanian Empire 399-420 CE
office held Peroz I. (-484) Sasanian Empire 459-484 CE
office held Hormizd III. (-459) Sasanian Empire 457-459 CE
office held Kavadh I. (-0531) Sasanian Empire 488-496 CE
office held Kavadh I. (-0531) Sasanian Empire 498-531 CE
office held Kassander (350-297 v. Chr.) Macedonia 305-297 BC
office held Philip II of Macedon (-0382--0336) Macedonia 359-336 BC
office held Amyntas III of Macedon (--370) Macedonia
office held Archelaus I of Macedon (-399) Macedonia 413-399 BC
office held Ziaelas Bithynia
office held Prusias I. Bithynia
office held Demetrios Poliorketes (-0336--0283) Macedonia
office held Antiochos II. Theos (286-246 v. Chr.) Seleucid Empire
office held Antiochus I Soter (-324--261) Seleucid Empire 281-261 BC
office held Seleucus II Callinicus (-265--226) Seleucid Empire 246-225 BC
office held Seleucus I Nicator (-358--281) Seleucid Empire 312-281 BC
office held Seleucus IV Philopator (--175) Seleucid Empire 187-175 BC
office held Antiochus III the Great (-242--187) Seleucid Empire 222-187 BC
office held Antiochos IV. Epiphanes (-215--164) Seleucid Empire 175-164 BC
office held Antiochus VI Dionysus (-148--142) Seleucid Empire
office held Antiochus VII Sidetes (-164--129) Seleucid Empire
office held Antiochus VIII Grypus (-0141--0096) Seleucid Empire
office held Frederick I of Württemberg (1754-1816) Württemberg
office held Jérôme Bonaparte (1784-1860) Westphalia 1807-1813
office held Charles I of Austria (1887-1922) Hungary
office held Charles V (1500-1558) Spain
office held John of Bohemia (1296-1346) Bohemia
office held Ottokar II of Bohemia (1232-1278) Bohemia
office held Wenceslaus I of Bohemia (-1253) Bohemia 1230-1253
office held Ottokar I of Bohemia (-1230) Bohemia 1198-1230
office held Vladislaus II of Bohemia (-1174) Bohemia 1158-1174
office held Rudolf of Rheinfelden (-1080) Holy Roman Empire
office held George III of Great Britain (1738-1820) Hanover, United Kingdom, Ireland
office held Croesus (-590--541) Lydia 560-546 BC
office held Alfonso II of Naples (1448-1495) Naples 1494-1495
office held Theseus Athens
office held Aegeus Athens

title awarded

title awarded Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194-1250) Palermo May 17, 1198

Sources & Mentions

Objects and visualizations

Relations to time periods

Show relations to time periods